Home Index

Encyclopedia of Energy Science

CONTENTS 14 pg 62K
0. Update
1. Introduction
2. Encyclopedia
3. Notes
4. References
5. Revision history
>>Copyright
>>www.benwiens.com
2008Aug11 by Ben Wiens...innovation operative

1. INTRODUCTION
    This encyclopedia is based on the booklet Energy Science Made Simple. Typically dictionaries, encyclopedias, and textbooks represent what the popular thought about words represents. This is in effect a rearward representation of what words ideally should mean. For example if the public misuses words, then eventually they represent the accepted definition. In a sense it would be better for knowledgeable professionals to decide what the words should represent. They could then make sure that each word fit into the language in a way which made sense. Of course it would be extremely difficult to get professionals to agree to what words mean. This encyclopedia though represents such thinking. Though there is no intention to force any person to use words in the way they are presented here, at least the whole encyclopedia represents a coherent and modern set of definitions throughout. Just as in the book, the definitions that are used are not always based on popular explanations, rather it is an attempt at going back and reviewing the information itself. It is based on weaving a single best thread through the current competing definitions available. All spelling is in US English. Presently the definitions are still rather limited. Even so the definitions may be considered to be more accurate and more representative of current information about energy than many encyclopedias on the market today.

2. ENCYCLOPEDIA
Absolute measurement system...theoretical system where all measurements are considered to be relative to absolute geometric coordinates.
absolute mass...symbol MA, is the total mass of matter wavicles that are at rest relative to the space continuum. This is the mass listed in the periodic tables. The term at rest refers to a matter particle not moving even though wavicles within it are traveling.
absolute energy...symbol EA, is the total energy of wavicles that are at rest relative to the space continuum. The term at rest refers to a matter particle not moving even though wavicles within it are traveling.
absorption...taking into from the space around.
acceleration...the rate of change of velocity with respect to time.
aether...sometimes spelled ether especially in the United States. A word used since early times to represent a material medium that light travels in. It is not likely that light travels in a medium made of matter, however there must be a structure of space for light to travel in relation to. A modern word for this non material medium is space continuum.
ambient temperature...the temperature of the surroundings. It is implied that the ambient reservoir is infinitely large compared to another reservoir that is used.
ambient reservoir...a reservoir is considered to be a source of internal energy in equilibrium or at the same uniform temperature. It is implied that the ambient reservoir is infinitely large compared to another reservoir that is used.
anergy...means the same as bound energy. This word is not common anymore, may be found in some older books.
atom...the building block of molecules.
availability...means the same as exergy and clausius energy.
availability evaluation...is the same as a second law evaluation except that generally only clausius energy is considered. In other types of second law analysis the evaluation is made more specific by limiting the evaluation to such forms of energy as helmholtz energy, gibbs energy, or expansion energy.
biology...the science of life and living organisms.
blackbody...an ideal substance that absorbs all and reflects none of the radiant energy falling on it.
boson...a class of energy wavicles, such as the photon, pion, or alpha particle, that permit any number of identical wavicles to occupy the same quantum state or spot.
boson energy...the amount of energy in a boson such as a photon.
bound energy...symbol BE, is the energy that can not be converted to external energy based on a certain temperature of the ambient reservoir. See plural energy system for chart of different energy forms.
brightness...a measure of the amount of photons striking a surface per unit of time.
calorie...when spelled with lower case is actually called a small calorie. An average person eats around 3,000,000 calories per day. Big calories are also called kilocalories.
Calorie...when spelled with upper case letters is actually called a big calorie or kilocalorie. To avoid confusion when speaking it is better to talk about calories when talking about small calories and kilocalories when talking about large Calories. An average person eats around 3,000 kilocalories per day. Many food packages are also listing the food value in joules, something that is now preferred. In the case of food, the kilocalories is the chemical energy of the food.

Sugar is converted into muscle power at about 25% A-X efficiency, www.benwiens.com

Sugar is converted into muscle power at about 25% A-X efficiency

caloric energy...with symbol QE is a new term which represents the amount of internal energy that will flow between two reservoirs. Caloric energy generally cannot be completely converted into external energy. See plural energy system for chart of different energy forms.

Caloric energy is the amount of internal energy that would flow from one system to another, www.benwiens.com

Caloric energy is the amount of internal energy that would flow from one system to another

carnot ratio...with symbol Cr can be used to represent the external energy that could be extracted from a flow of caloric energy at an instantaneous moment such as when a single photon is converted.

The carnot ratio plotted on a graph shows the changing conversion efficiency during a process, www.benwiens.com

The carnot ratio plotted on a graph shows the changing conversion efficiency during a process

Carnot cycle...a theoretical engine cycle first theorized by Sadi Carnot that can theoretically convert all the helmholtz energy from two reservoirs of thermal energy into external energy. It is the only cycle that can achieve this efficiency without using a heat exchanger. Some other cycles can achieve nearly this efficiency only when they approach the point of not producing any power, however the Carnot cycle can achieve this efficiency at full power conditions in theory.
Carnot, Sadi 1796-1832...French physicist and engineer who founded the science of thermodynamics.
Celsius...symbol °C and spoken degrees Celsius, relating to a temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 0° and the boiling point as 100° under normal atmospheric pressure.
chemical energy...symbol CE, is the energy stored due to the bonds between the atoms in the molecule. See plural energy system for chart of different energy types.
chemistry...the science of the composition of atomic and molecular systems.
Clausius, Rudolf 1822-88...German mathematical physicist and is considered one of the founders of the science of thermodynamics. He restated Sadi Carnot's principle and put the theory of heat on a sounder basis. His most important paper, On the mechanical theory of heat, published in 1850, first stated the basic ideas of the second law of thermodynamics. In 1865 he introduced the concept of entropy. Through investigations of heat, electricity, and molecular physics, he developed the kinetic-molecular theory of gases.
clausius energy...symbol YE, is a new term which is composed of external energy plus helmholtz energy. In other words it is a form of energy which could be entirely converted into external energy in some type of theoretical process. Related to the concept of exergy and availability. Named after Rudolf Clausius. See plural energy system for chart of different energy forms.
clock...an instrument for measuring or indicating time.
cogeneration energy...symbol DE, is a new term that is composed of external energy and caloric energy. It most often represents the combination of electricity and thermal energy available in a co-generation power plant.
Coherent radiation...electromagnetic wavicles like microwave or laser that have equal spacing between traveling wavicles. Are considered to be a form of hybrid internal energy which can be considered to be organized energy when the radiation is fully coherent, so the carnot ratio does not apply.
color...visual effect resulting from the eye's ability to distinguish the different wavicle frequencies of light.

We see color based on the frequency of individual wavicles and not on spacing between wavicles, www.benwiens.com

We see color based on the frequency of individual wavicles and not on spacing between wavicles

competing models...competing descriptions of how a system operates.
compressed...pressed together into less volume or space.
continuum...the continuous extent of space. Sometimes also a short form of space continuum.
convenient model...convenient descriptions of how a system operates.
current model...description of how a system operates based on the most current information.
curvature of space...a concept popularized by Einstein where space is considered to curved due to the effects of gravity force fields on light.
decomposing...to separate into components.
definition...a statement of the meaning of a word.
Descartes aether theory...he proposed that the universe was entirely full of three elements. All material things were made of the third element. The second element's particles made up a fluid called the aether that filled the space in-between the third element. The first element was what the aether particles were made of. Light was not made of the third element but was rather a vibration that traveled in the aether fluid.
diffraction...bending of the direction of travel of photon wavicles around the edge of an obstacle or by a narrow aperture due to attractive forces.
diffraction grating...a large number of very fine parallel grooves or slits cut in a glass or metal surface which produce colors of the rainbow like a prism.
directional...in one direction only.
distance...the extent of space between two places.
Einstein, Albert 1879-1955...German-born theoretical physicist whose special and general theories of relativity revolutionized modern thought on the nature of energy.
einstein energy...symbol EE, is the total of all forms of energy in the universe. In the older Law of Conservation of Energy it was said that energy can neither be created or destroyed. The form of energy that is referred to is really einstein energy. Other forms of energy such as helmholtz energy can in effect be destroyed in a system. See plural energy system for chart of different energy forms.
electron energy...symbol ZE, is the sum of both the motion and position energy of the electron wavicle. This is not the same as electrical energy which is a form of external energy. See plural energy system for chart of different energy forms.
electricity...an electric current produced by the repulsive force produced by electrons of the same charge. A flow of electric current represents electrical energy which is not a form of internal energy but rather external energy.
electrical energy...symbol WE, not to be confused with electron energy. A flow of electric current represents electrical energy which is not a form of internal energy but rather external energy.
electromagnetic force field...holds together atoms and molecules, is responsible for magnetism and electric forces. It is not known why forces occur.
emission...a discharge into space around.
Energy Conversion Law...in any particular process of converting external energy to internal energy or internal energy to external energy, if any temperature produced is less than the maximum possible for that process, there will be a loss of clausius energy in that process.
energy science... presently science is divided into the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. It is beneficial to group the basic concepts of energy from the different areas of science together. Such a common study of energy could be called energy science which does not cover specific details of all of science but rather only the ones specifically relating to the concepts of energy.
energy...the ability to create a force over a distance in the universe from the very smallest event within the tiniest of particles to the very largest between celestial objects in the universe. Energy then is the ability to do work some time in the future. It is stored work potential. [1]
Energy is the ability to create a force over a distance some time in the future, www.benwiens.com

Energy is the ability to create a force over a distance some time in the future

engineering...profession devoted to designing, constructing, and operating structures, machines, and other devices.
entropy...a measure of the amount of thermal energy which can not be converted into external energy. In other words it is a measure of the amount of bound energy in a system. It is not though equal to the bound energy. Entropy is a number that can be multiplied by the ambient temperature of Reservoir T0 to obtain the bound energy.
enthalpy...same as heat energy. The term enthalpy was popularized as a single name alternative to two word names.
enzyme...proteins produced by living organisms which function as biochemical catalysts.
equilibrium...a reservoir of internal energy at the same uniform temperature.
essergy...same meaning as exergy or clausius energy but is not used anymore.
ether...sometimes spelled aether. This should not be confused with the common gas called ether. A word used since early times to represent a material medium that light travels in. It is not likely that light travels in a medium made of matter, however there must be a structure of space for light to travel in relation to. A modern word for this non material medium is space continuum.
exergy...same as availability and similar to clausius energy.
exergy evaluation...a second law evaluation is a calculation of the maximum amount of external energy that could be extracted from a system based on a certain reference atmosphere. A reference atmosphere is a body of matter such as the earth that energy can flow into during a conversion of internal energy to external energy. In engineering the second law evaluation is also called an exergy evaluation or availability evaluation, but this is generally a more specific type of evaluation involving only clausius energy. Exergy is considered to be the amount of external energy that can be drawn from energy based on a certain reference atmosphere. Exergy is not considered to be a form of energy but a designation of the quality of energy. Availability is a word that means the same as exergy.
expansion energy...symbol VE, such as that contained in high pressure air in an automobile tire is an important hybrid form of external energy. While it is definitely considered to be a form of external energy, it appears to be a form of thermal energy and obeys many of the same gas rules as thermal energy. See plural energy system for chart of different energy forms.
external energy...symbol XE, also called organized energy, is the directionally oriented motion energy or multidirectional energy that can theoretically be entirely converted to directional energy in simple one-step mechanisms. See plural energy system for chart of different energy types.

Internal energy and external energy forms, www.benwiens.com

Internal energy and external energy forms

fermion...a particle, such as an electron, a proton, or a neutron, which obey statistical rules requiring that not more than one in a set of identical particles may occupy a particular quantum state.
fields...see force fields.
filter...specifically a light filter is a substance that absorbs light and only emits certain colors or wavicle frequencies.
First Law of Energy ..einstein energy can neither be created nor destroyed. The sum of all forms of energy remains constant in the universe.
First Law of Mass...mass can neither be created nor destroyed. The sum of all forms of mass remains constant in the universe.
First Law evaluations...evaluating a process only on the basis of the First Law of Energy.
First Law of Thermodynamics ..in any thermodynamic process the total energy remains constant, none is created or destroyed. Note that it is better to rather use the First Law of Energy.
force fields...presently force fields are not very well understood in science and it is not known what causes them. The Standard Model suggests that force fields are produced by the result of an exchange of virtial interactive wavicles such as photons between matter wavicles. In this view it is imagined that the magnetic field of a magnet is a flow of virtual photons emanating from one end of the magnet and being returned in the other. It is more likely that force fields are a completely different entity of space. It is commonly thought that there are four force fields that exist along with four different types of virtual interactive wavicles. The Strong field, Electromagnetic field, Weak field, and Gravitational field. In reality it is not known whether this is in fact true. It is likely that all types of bosons exist but they may not be responsible for forces. The most common interactive wavicle is the photon.
force...the capacity to cause a change in movement of energy wavicles.
Four dimensional space-time continuum...Einstein popularized a certain system of measurement in the universe which is called the Observer measurement system which is based on a four dimensional space-time continuum. In this system, distance, time and mass are all related to what an observer would see or measure. An observer...is considered to be a human or an instrument that is measuring the event. In the Observer system, time is based on clocks the observer has which vary their speed depending how fast they travel relative to the space-time. Distances in the universe are based on how quickly a ray of light can travel from the distant event. Einstein loved to think in terms of a 4 dimensional universe with the length of time it took for light to travel between events as being a 4th dimension. Space was curved because this is the path that light took in traveling through the universe due to the effects of gravity on light.
free energy...symbol FE. Both helmholtz energy or gibbs energy are forms of the broader definition of free energy. This term is not widely used anymore as it is better to use either helmholtz energy or gibbs energy.
fuel cell...an electrochemical cell in which the chemical energy from the oxidation of a fuel is converted directly to electrical energy in a continuous process. The fuel cell differs from a battery in that its fuel reactants are supplied from an external source.

A fuel cell can convert the temperature of the fuel directly into electricity, www.benwiens.com

A fuel cell can convert the temperature of the fuel directly into electricity

gas turbine...an internal combustion engine consisting essentially of an air compressor, a combustion chamber, and a turbine wheel that is turned by the expanding products of combustion.
General Relativity theory...the theory developed by Albert Einstein in 1916 which incorporated and extended the theory of special relativity to accelerated frames of reference and introduced the principle that gravitational and inertial forces were equivalent.
Gibbs, Josiah Willard 1839-1903...American mathematician and physicist who formulated the theoretical foundation of chemistry. He started the basics of the plural energy system and proposed the unit of energy called free energy. Both helmholtz energy and gibbs energy are forms of the broader definition of free energy.
gibbs energy...symbol GE, is composed of helmholtz energy plus expansion energy. See plural energy system for chart of different energy types.
gibbs ratio...symbol Gr, represents the external energy that could be extracted during the entire flow of heat energy.
gravity...the natural force of attraction between any two bodies of energy. See gravitational force field.
gravitational force field...a force that pulls all energy wavicles together. Presently force fields are not very well understood in science and it is not known what causes them.
hot...exhibiting a temperature that is higher than normal or desirable.
heat...an outdated term used presently to represent the transfer of thermal energy. It is better to state that for example thermal energy, helmholtz energy, or gibbs energy was transferred.
heat energy...symbol HE, is often called enthalpy presently. It contains a mixture of caloric energy and external energy. See plural energy system for chart of different energy forms.
heat exchanger...a device used to transfer thermal energy from a fluid or gas on one side of a barrier to a fluid or gas on the other side without bringing the fluids or gases into direct contact.
heat pump...a device that uses external energy to create a larger amount of caloric energy between two reservoirs.
Helmholtz, Hermann 1821-94...German scientist. An investigator of thermodynamics, he extended the application of the law of conservation of energy. He proposed the units of energy now called helmholtz energy and bound energy.
helmholtz energy...symbol AE, is the part of caloric energy that could be converted into external energy in a future process. See plural energy system for chart of different energy forms.
helmholtz ratio...symbol Ar, is a ratio that represents the external energy that could be extracted during the entire flow of caloric energy.
Higgs Field...a field theorized to be responsible for inertia and mass of matter. Such a field is suggested in the Standard Model. In effect the Higgs Field is almost identical to the older concept of the aether or ether with the difference being that the aether was only a medium that light traveled in while the Higgs Field is something that matter interacts with as well.
impulse...the product of a force multiplied by the time during which it acts. The impulse equals the change in momentum produced by the force in this time period.
incoherent light...light that does not have a regular spacing between photons. The light wavicles may all have the same wavicle frequency however.
infrared light...relating to the range of invisible radiation wavelengths just longer than red in the visible spectrum.
interactive wavicles...also known as bosons. A photon is one type of interactive wavicle.
internal energy...symbol UE, also called unorganized energy, is the multidirectional energy contained in the molecular and smaller motions that cannot entirely be converted into external energy. The symbol U is derived from the term unorganized. Internal energy is logically divided up between 8 different types that are the most used. See plural energy system for chart of different energy types.
irreversible process...is a process which once having taken place, can not be reversed back to the original conditions by some sort of process and in doing so leave no change in either the system or the surroundings.
joule...symbol J is the metric or International System unit of all forms of energy. One joule is equal to the work done when a force of 1 newton acts through a distance of 1 meter. However the watt-hour or kilowatt-hour is fast becoming the unit of choice when working with energy conversions where electrical or mechanical energy are involved.
Kelvin...symbol °K and spoken degrees Kelvin. A unit of absolute temperature where 0°K is the coldest temperature that can exist. Though the scale begins at a different point than the Celsius scale, this unit is equal to one Celsius degree. In the Kelvin scale, water freezes at 273.15°K and boils at 373.15°K. As of 1967 the presently accepted symbol for Kelvin is K without the degree symbol. This however is confusing as Celsius is expressed in degrees and Kelvin is not. Also K can be mistaken for K, the proposed simple symbol for kinetic energy. Because the English alphabet has a limited amount of letters to be used as symbols, standard character set designations like the degree symbol can be used to further identify a unit. The degree symbol can easily be typed on a computer by holding down the Alt key while typing 248.
Kelvin, William Thomson 1824-1907...British mathematician and physicist. His work in thermodynamics coordinating the various existing theories of heat established the law of the conservation of energy as proposed by James Joule. He introduced the Kelvin scale, or absolute scale, of temperature.
kinetic energy...symbol KE, is a form of external energy. It is the directional oriented motion energy of matter particles that are larger than molecules which can entirely be converted into external energy. When particles are only slightly larger than the size of molecules it may not be possible to convert all the motion energy to external energy. Just as with imperfect gases, some of the motion energy may be bound in the form of attractive forces between the molecules. See plural energy system for chart of different energy types.
kinetic molecular theory...physical theory that explains the behavior of gases by assuming that any gas is composed of a very large number of molecules that are very far apart compared to their sizes. The molecules are assumed to exert no forces on one another, except during rare, perfectly elastic collisions. A gas corresponding to these assumptions is called an ideal gas.
latent energy...symbol LE, is the energy stored in the atom due to the van der Walls forces between the molecules in a substance which is stored or released when undergoing a change of state, such as ice changing to water or water to steam. See plural energy system for chart of different energy types.
Law of Conservation of Energy...the total energy in the universe or a system can neither be created or destroyed but it can be converted from one form to another. It is preferable to rather use the term First Law of Energy.
laser wavicles...beam of monochromatic as well as coherent light wavicles. This light has both photons of the same wavicle frequency as well as a regular spacing between photons
leptons ..any of a family of elementary particles that participate in the weak interaction, including the electron, the muon, and their associated neutrinos.
light... that part of electromagnetic radiation to which the human eye is sensitive.
Loschmidt, Josef 1821-1895...Czech Republic professor of physical chemistry at the University of Vienna. In the 1800's scientists argued whether gases in a column would stratify due to gravity and become hotter at the bottom than the top. Maxwell and Boltzmann said it would not, but Loschmidt a prominent scientist of his time, argued that the world would have a never ending supply of energy this way. More modern experiments have been done using centrifugal force. There have been no working models to date.
Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon 1853-1928...Dutch physicist. He extended the hypothesis of George Fitzgerald, an Irish physicist, that a body's length contracts as its speed increases (the Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction) and formulated the Lorentz transformation. This work influenced Albert Einstein's special theory of Relativity.
macroscopic...larger than normal molecules.
magnetic field...a force field traveling around a magnet. See electromagnetic force field.
mass... is a value that is proportional to the amount of energy in an entity. Inertia and gravity effects are directly proportional to the amount of mass of all forms of energy. In the Absolute measurement system it is desirable to subdivide mass into four subterms. Absolute mass refers to the mass of matter wavicles that are at rest relative to the space continuum. This is the mass listed in the periodic tables. Rest mass refers to the mass of matter wavicles that are at rest relative to the observer which may be traveling at various speeds relative to the space continuum. Relativistic mass refers to the total mass of all energy wavicles as they travel faster relative to the space continuum. Velocity mass is the increased mass of all energy wavicles as they travel faster relative to the space continuum.
matter wavicle...commonly known as a fermion is an energy wavicle that contains matter.

Matter wavicles are really just collections of interaction wavicles, www.benwiens.com

Matter wavicles are really just collections of interaction wavicles

matter...is energy that can exist even when it is stationary relative to the space continuum. The term stationary refers to a matter particle not moving even though wavicles within it are traveling.
Maxwell's demon...James Maxwell the famous 1880s scientist joked about a very tiny demon which might be pressed into service to separate quickly moving molecules from slower molecules by operating a trap door between two chambers. Such a device could be used to make perpetual motion possible.

Maxwell joked about a demon that would sort hot and cold molecules, www.benwiens.com

Maxwell joked about a demon that would sort hot and cold molecules

mechanical energy...symbol ME, usually represents a transfer of external energy such as turning of a shaft.
membrane theory...suggests that all energy particles are created by different nodes of vibrating membranes.
metric space...a word used to describe the granularity of space.
Michelson Morely experiment 1887...sometimes referred to as the MMX. In this experiment a single beam of light was split by a prism and sent along two perpendicular arms and bounced off mirrors back to a spectrometer. It was felt that if the earth was moving through a fixed aether the device should be able to detect a difference in time that light would need to travel along the arms when the device was turned. No difference was found. Many claimed that this device proved there was no fixed entity in the universe that light traveled in relation to. Much later in 1930 Michelson and Gale built a different device which did indeed show a difference. Their earlier device simply could not detect such an entity because of the way movement through it was canceled out. Presently the word space continuum is used for this background entity that light travels in relation to instead of aether. This is because aether is generally regarded as a word to represent a background entity of the universe made of matter, which it is not.
Michelson Gale experiment 1930...instead of using two beams of light traveling perpendicular to each other as in the Michelson Morley experiment, they had two beams of light traveling in counter rotating directions around a large rectangular circuit of evacuated pipes. The test indicated that there was indeed a difference in time for the light to go around in each direction. More recently the earth's rotation through the space continuum has been detected by sending radio (light) wavicles in opposite directions around the world near the equator by means of GPS satellites. A difference in time is recorded in each direction as well.

The Michelson and Gale experiment used two beams of light traveling in counter rotating directions, www.benwiens.com

The Michelson and Gale experiment used two beams of light traveling in counter rotating directions

microscopic...the size of normal molecules or smaller.
model...a description of a system, theory, or phenomenon that accounts for its known or inferred properties and may be used for further study of its characteristics.
molecule...is made of two or more atoms.
momentum...the linear momentum of a body is the product of its mass and velocity.

Momentum is different than energy, www.benwiens.com

Momentum is different than external energy

multidirectional...traveling in many directions.
molecular kinetic theory...see kinetic molecular theory.
monochromatic light...composed of photons of only one color or wavicle frequency.
M-theory...new name coined in around 1998 that incorporates string and membrane theories.
Newton, Isaac 1642-1727...English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theories of gravity, light, and color.
Newton's laws of motion...see Newton's First Law of Motion and Newton's Second Law of Motion.
Newton's First Law of Motion...Inertia law ..a body which is at rest will remain at rest and a body which is in motion will remain in motion at the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by some unbalanced force.
Newton's Second Law of Motion...Acceleration law ..a body which is acted upon by an unbalanced force is given an acceleration in the direction of the force which is proportional to the force acting and inversely proportional to its mass.
neutron...subatomic particle discovered in 1932 of slightly greater mass than the proton which forms the nucleus of most atoms.
neutrino...an elementary energy wavicle emitted during the decay of certain matter wavicles.
nuclear energy...symbol NE, is the energy stored due to the forces between the protons and neutrons in an atom, only the energy of a nuclear reaction is considered. See plural energy system for chart of different energy types.
nuclear fission...a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus, especially a heavy nucleus such as an isotope of uranium, splits into fragments.
nucleus energy...symbol IE, is the energy contained in energy wavicles that can not typically be converted into either internal or external energy. For example it does not seem possible under normal circumstances to convert any of the energy contained in neutrons or protons into thermal energy or electric energy other than a small amount of nuclear energy.
Observer measurement system...Einstein popularized a certain relative system of measurement which could be called the Observer measurement system. Because of the Doppler effect that occurs when energy wavicles travel in the universe, and because of the speed of light, measuring tools, clocks, and mass all change as an observer moves relative to the space continuum. An observer...is considered to be a human or an instrument that is measuring the event. So it is impossible to get an absolute measurement of distance, time, and mass in relation to the space continuum. So in the Observer system, time is based on clocks the observer has which vary their speed depending how fast they travel relative to the space continuum. Distances in the universe are based on how quickly a ray of light can travel from the distant event. Measurements of mass become only comparisons with other frames of reference.
observer...a human or an instrument that is measuring or observing an event.
old model...old description of how a system operates.
particle accelerators...device used to produce beams of energetic charged particles and to direct them against various targets for studies of the structure and components of the atomic nucleus and of the forces holding it together.
particle...matter of macroscopic size or in other words larger than a typical molecule but so small it is hard to see with the human eye.
perpetual motion of the 1st kind...represents creating external energy without any other removal of einstein energy from the universe.
perpetual motion of the 2nd kind...represents the ability to convert external energy from internal energy that contains no helmholtz energy. Perpetual motion of the 2nd kind is thought to be impossible by modern scientists, however there is no absolute scientific principle involved. It is known that presently all processes seem to be limited by the equilibrium laws, but there is no way of telling whether there might be some undiscovered twist of nature were this does not apply.
photon...an energy wavicle emitted by the electromagnetic force field.
physics...the science of energy, the system of the force fields, and the space continuum that they travel in.
planet...A non-luminous celestial body larger than an asteroid or a comet, illuminated by light from a star, such as the sun, around which it revolves.
plural energy system...a system of energy where there are different forms such as gibbs energy or kinetic energy. Only einstein energy is truly conserved. The basis of this system has been established in chemistry while engineering generally prefers to use the singular energy system.

Different forms of energy shown in a chart, www.benwiens.com

Popular 28 forms of energy in the plural energy system shown in a bar chart

polarized light...refers to photon wavicles with all the same spin or properties.
potential energy...symbol PE, is the external energy possessed by a body because of its position. See plural energy system for chart of different energy types.
Poincaré, Jules Henri 1854-1912...French mathematician, physicist, one of the greatest mathematicians of his age. He did notable work in differential equations and celestial mechanics and wrote extensively on the philosophy of science.

prism...a piece of translucent material such as glass or crystal with a triangular cross section, used to separate light into different colors.
proton...subatomic particle discovered in 1919 of slightly less mass than the neutron which forms the nucleus of all atoms.
Quantum Field Theory...was developed mostly after about 1945 as an attempt to unify relativity and quantum theory and is still widely used. Quantum field theory in the era after 1970 attempts to combine aspects of Einstein's Relativity, quantum theory, and gauge theory into one.
Quantum Mechanics...is a branch of physics that deals with the emission and absorption of energy on the microscopic level. Quantum Mechanics is largely based on probabilities, something that bothered Einstein. The wavicles are obeying the law of physics for microscopic wavicles, it is just that scientists do not have equipment that can measure an individual event and so probabilities are used to estimate what may occur.
Quantum Theory...is a branch of physics that deals with the emission and absorption of energy on the microscopic level.
quark...elementary matter wavicle that the neutron and proton are made of.
radiation...the emission or transmission of energy in the form of real photon wavicles through the space continuum.
radiant energy...symbol RE, is the internal energy contained in the moving photon wavicle. See plural energy system for chart of different energy forms.
radio wavicles...electromagnetic wavicles or photons with an approximate wavicle frequency range from 10 kilohertz to 300,000 megahertz wavicle frequency.
real boson...see real interactive wavicle.
real interactive wavicle...it is commonly thought that there are four force fields that exist along with four different types of virtual interactive wavicles. The Strong field, Electromagnetic field, Weak field, Gravitational field. In reality it is not known whether this is in fact true. It is likely that all types of bosons exist but they may not be responsible for forces. The most common interactive wavicle is the photon.
reference atmosphere...is a body of matter such as the earth that energy can flow into during a conversion of internal energy to external energy.
refrigerator...an appliance, a cabinet, or a room for storing food or other substances at a low temperature which contains a device for producing the lower than ambient temperatures.

A refrigerator creates more caloric energy than the external energy put in, www.benwiens.com

A refrigerator creates more caloric energy than the external energy put in

relativistic mass...symbol MR, the mass of all matter and interactive wavicles which changes as they travel faster relative to the space continuum.
relativistic energy... symbol ER, the energy of all matter and interactive wavicles which changes as they travel faster relative to the space continuum.
Relativity...see Special Relativity, General Relativity.
reversible process...is a process which once having taken place, can be reversed back to the original conditions by some sort of process and in doing so leave no change in either the system or the surroundings.
reservoir...is considered to be a source of internal energy in equilibrium or at the same uniform temperature.
reservoir T0...the ambient reservoir considered to be infinitely greater in mass than a second reservoir used.
rest mass...symbol M0, is the total mass of matter wavicles that are at rest relative to the observer which may be traveling at various speeds relative to the space continuum. Sometimes called invariant mass. The term at rest refers to a matter particle not moving even though wavicles within it are traveling.
rest energy...symbol E0, the total energy of matter wavicles that are at rest relative to the observer which may be traveling at various speeds relative to the space continuum. The term at rest refers to a matter particle not moving even though wavicles within it are traveling.
relativistic mass...symbol MR, is the total mass of energy wavicles that are traveling relative to the space continuum.
relativistic energy...symbol ER, the total energy of energy wavicles that are traveling relative to the space continuum.
Second Law of Thermodynamics...there are different variations of this law. All of them relate to the inability to convert sources of thermal energy entirely into external energy. As roughly stated by Sadi Carnot ..it is impossible to construct an engine which will convert a given quantity of thermal energy into an equivalent amount of work. It is better to rather use the Second Law of Energy which applies to all forms of internal energy and not only to thermal energy.
scientist...a person having expert knowledge of one or more sciences, especially a natural or physical science.
Second Law of Energy...different forms of energy can not necessarily be entirely converted into other forms of energy.
Second Law of Mass...different forms of mass can not necessarily be entirely converted into other forms of mass.
singular energy system...a second law evaluation is a calculation of the maximum amount of external energy that could be extracted from a system based on a certain reference atmosphere. A reference atmosphere is a body of matter such as the earth that energy can flow into during a conversion of internal energy to external energy. In engineering the second law evaluation is also called an exergy evaluation or availability evaluation, but this is generally a more specific type of evaluation involving only clausius energy. Exergy is considered to be the amount of external energy that can be drawn from energy based on a certain reference atmosphere. Exergy is not considered to be a form of energy but a designation of the quality of energy. Availability is a word that means the same as exergy. Chemistry rather uses second law evaluation terms like helmholtz energy and gibbs energy. The chemistry terms are referred to here as the plural energy system. The mechanical engineering system on the other hand is referred to as the singular energy system.
sound waves...the transfer of energy by some form of regular vibration, or oscillatory motion, inside a 3 dimensional material medium such as air.
second law evaluation...a calculation of the maximum amount of external energy that could be extracted from a system based on a certain reference atmosphere.
semiconductor material...any of various solid crystalline substances, such as germanium or silicon, having electrical conductivity greater than insulators but less than good conductors.
solar cell...a semiconductor device that converts the energy of sunlight into electric energy. Also called a photovoltaic cell.
solution energy...symbol SE...the change in energy of a solution when a certain amount of solute dissolves in a solvent. See plural energy system for chart of different energy types.
space continuum...it is possible that the entire universe is composed of at least three layers of entities that can be identified. It appears that there a space continuum which forms a fixed absolute 3-dimensional structure that entirely fills the universe. At present we have no words in our language to describe such an entity that is not made up of any form of matter. It is not solid, liquid or gas, because these are words to describe different formations of atomic particles. We can only use common words such as granularity, cellularity, or metrical to describe the fact that the space continuum must be divided off into very small sub entities. It must have sub entities because the speed of energy as well as force fields that travel through space devoid of matter is very uniform. How would energy wavicles and force fields know how to travel at a certain rate if the space continuum or space were one large entity? Surely photons do not have a sense of detecting their absolute velocity, a computer, and a throttle to control their speed through empty space to such an exact standard as the speed of light. If the space continuum has very small entities, then energy wavicles and force fields could have a uniform speed by jumping from one entity to another or by traveling in relation to these entities. This is somewhat similar to how the speed of sound can be constant by traveling in a medium. The space continuum as also been referred to as Physical Space, Total Field, or space continuum.

Einstein rarely mentioned details of the uniform structure that energy travels in , www.benwiens.com

Einstein rarely mentioned details of the uniform structure that energy travels in

space-time...in space-time, events in the universe are described in terms of a four-dimensional continuum in which each observer locates an event by three spacelike coordinates and one timelike coordinate.
Special Relativity theory...describes how matter and interactive wavicles change energy and relativistic mass as they travel relative to a 4 dimensional space-time model.
speed of light...the maximum speed at which photon wavicles travel in the space continuum when they are not traveling through matter wavicles.
star...a self-luminous celestial body consisting of a mass of gas in which the energy is generated by nuclear reactions in the interior.
Stirling cycle... a theoretical engine cycle first theorized by Robert Stirling that can theoretically convert all the helmholtz energy from two reservoirs of thermal energy into external energy. It is as efficient as the Carnot cycle at full power conditions however it needs to use a heat exchanger or recuperator to accomplish this.
String theory...suggests that all energy wavicles and force fields are created by different nodes of vibrating strings.
strong force field...holds quarks together.
substratum...another name for the space continuum.
Superstring theory...suggests that all energy wavicles and force fields are created by different nodes of vibrating strings.
system boundary...generally a dotted line that is drawn around two reservoirs depicting the caloric energy system boundary. The system boundary includes a source of internal energy and the local ambient environment in which the internal energy will flow into. Present textbooks show the system boundary drawn around only the reservoir to be converted or Reservoir T because the concept of caloric energy is not used.
temperature...symbol T is a scale that represents the amount of energy per wavicle of different forms of internal energy and is equivalent to the maximum temperature that would result if converted entirely into thermal energy.

Internal energy has varying amounts of energy per wavicle called temperature, www.benwiens.com

Internal energy has varying amounts of energy per wavicle called temperature

theory...an assumption based on limited information or knowledge.
Theory of Everything...concept of how the universe operates down to the smallest detail. Only the framework of such a system is presently understood. It is better to use such a modern view as opposed to hanging on to theories such as Relativity and Quantum mechanics which hold partial and opposing concepts of the universe. The Theory of Everything therefore will not be a complete picture presently but it will be filled in slowly over time. It is at least an attempt at painting the biggest picture. If we see a large canvas we know that there is much left to fill in. If we have a small canvas which is nearly full, we think that there is little left to paint in. The Theory of Everything can be used to encompass all the different theories as long as they propose to describe the biggest picture possible. This is a better word than Totally Unified Theory which is a narrow-minded view which attempts to explain the entire universe as a single particle, which in the end may not be true at all.

Both matter and photon energy is related to its wavicle frequency relative to the space continuum, www.benwiens.com

The energy in each photon or matter particle is related to its wavicle frequency relative to the space continuum

thermodynamics...is a branch of science concerned with the nature of thermal energy and its conversion into other forms of energy. This branch of science generally adopts the older Joule or classical model of energy.
time...events occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past to the future.
thermal energy...symbol TE, is the motion energy of the molecules. See plural energy system for chart of different energy types.
twins paradox...suggestion that two twins would age at different rates if one was sent through space at high speed and the other would stay fixed.
uranium...a heavy element used for nuclear fuel.
Unified field theory...suggests that all four forces are the result of a single particle.
universe...all matter and energy, including Earth, the galaxies and all therein, and the contents of intergalactic space which includes the space continuum, regarded as a whole.
Van der Waal force...a weak attractive force between atoms or nonpolar molecules.
velocity mass...symbol MV, is the increased mass of all matter wavicles as they travel faster relative to the space continuum, it is the difference between two values of relativistic mass at different speeds.
velocity energy...symbol EV, is the increased energy of all matter wavicles as they travel faster relative to the space continuum, it is the difference between two values of relativistic energy at different speeds.
vibration...a rapid linear motion of a material or non material particle about an equilibrium position.
virtual gluon...presently there are four force fields that are thought to exist along with four different types of virtual interactive wavicles. It is suggested that the Strong field holds quarks together and emits a virtual gluon. It is more likely that we don't know what causes forces to occur.
virtual graviton...presently there are four force fields that are thought to exist along with four different types of virtual interactive wavicles. It is suggested that the gravitational field pulls all energy wavicles together and emits a virtual graviton. It is more likely that we don't know what causes forces to occur.
virtual photon...a photon that does not really leave the field surrounding the atom.
virtual W, Z wavicle...presently there are four force fields that are thought to exist along with four different types of interactive wavicles. The Weak field is responsible for holding together leptons such as the electron and emits a virtual W, Z wavicle.
water waves...the transfer of energy by some form of regular vibration, or oscillatory motion, on the surface of water.
wave-particle duality theory...a theory based in Quantum Mechanics that single entities of matter and energy have both wavelike and particlelike properties. It is better however to think of energy as wavicles which behave in a totally different way than do macroscopic particles.
wave should be defined...as the transfer of energy by some form of regular vibration, or oscillatory motion, in a material medium.
wavicles...vibrations of energy that travel in the space continuum. All energy in the universe including matter is composed of collections of such wavicles.
wavicle chain...a collection of energy wavicles that combine together end to end to form a chain.
wavicle web...a collection of energy wavicles that combine together in multiple ways to form a type of web.
wavicle loop...an energy wavicle that with ends joined together.
wavicle frequency...is a word that can be used to describe the number of vibrations of the energy wavicle per unit of time.
wavicle length...is the distance that an energy wavicle travels forward through the space continuum during one vibration.
weak force field...presently there are four force fields that are thought to exist. The weak force is thought to be responsible for holding together leptons such as the electron and emits a virtual W, Z wavicle. It is more likely that we don't know what causes forces to occur.
weight...the gravitational force of attraction between two bodies of matter.
weightless...a feeling of not experiencing the effects of gravity. If gravity is pulling downwards, then how do astronauts feel weightless? It is because the acceleration due to moving away from the natural motion through the space continuum and the acceleration due to gravity are completely balanced off. Not only are they balanced but both of these forces are balanced throughout the entire body of the astronaut. In this way acceleration and gravity feel the same but are not actually the same thing.
work...a force acting over a distance in the universe from the very smallest event within the tiniest of particles to the very largest between celestial objects in the universe.
X-ray...a relatively high energy photon with wavicle length in the approximate range from 0.01 to 10 nanometers.

3. NOTES
[1] In 1807, the English physician Thomas Young (1773-1829) proposed the word energy for the work potential that is stored within things. It is based on the Greek words like energeia meaning "work within". This term gradually became popular and is now applied to any phenomenon capable of conversion into work (Asimov v1-p94).

4. REFERENCES
Apfel, Necia, 1985 It's All Elementary, from Atoms to the Quantum world, Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books, NY USA
Asimov, I. 1966 Understanding Physics Volume 1, Dorset Press, USA
Auyang, S.Y. 1995 How is Quantum Field Theory Possible, Oxford University Press, NY USA
Bailyn, M. 1994 A Survey of Thermodynamics, AIP Press NY USA
Brillouin, Leon 1970 Relativity Reexamined, Academic Press NY USA
Calder, N. 1979 Einstein's Universe, The Viking Press NY USA
Dudley, H.C. 1959 New Principles in Quantum Mechanics, Exposition Press NY USA
Einstein, Albert 1952 Relativity, the Special and General theory, Crown Publishers Inc. NY USA
Gardner, M. 1962 Relativity for the Million, The MacMillan Co. NY USA
Gibbs, Philip 1997 Does mass change with velocity Relativity FAQ www.weburbia.demon.co.uk/physics/
Goldstein, M. 1995 The Refrigerator and the Universe, Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass USA
Mauldin, John H., 1986 Particles in Nature, Tab Books
Passoft 1998 The Michelson-Morley Experiment, Internet

5. REVISION HISTORY
1999Jul15 First printing of Encyclopedia of Energy Science 8 pages
1999Sep20 Made some minor corrections.
1999Sep22 Changed description of aether, added illustrations, changed to V and Q energy symbols from X* and U*.
1999Dec24 Changed and added definitions to relate to the latest Energy Science Made Simple which is based on the Theory of Everything.
2000Jun20 Added 4 forms of energy, changed symbols for mass and energy types.
2001Mar20 Changed SE from subnuclear energy to solution energy.
2001Nov21 Modified about 8 definitions.
2002Jan18 Added form of energy called nucleus energy.
2002May03 Renamed hyphenated energy to plural energy system and made related changes.
2008Aug11 Made numerous minor corrections.

COPYRIGHT © 1999-2014 All rights reserved
Ben Wiens Consulting Inc. Metro Vancouver BC Canada