Encyclopedia of Energy Science
CONTENTS 14 pg 62K|
5. Revision history
2008Aug11 by Ben Wiens...energy scientist
Sugar is converted into muscle power at about 25% A-X efficiency
caloric energy...with symbol QE is a new term which represents the amount of internal energy that will flow between two reservoirs. Caloric energy generally cannot be completely converted into external energy. See plural energy system for chart of different energy forms.
Caloric energy is the amount of internal energy that would flow from one system to another
carnot ratio...with symbol Cr can be used to represent the external energy that could be extracted from a flow of caloric energy at an instantaneous moment such as when a single photon is converted.
The carnot ratio plotted on a graph shows the changing conversion efficiency during a process
Carnot cycle...a theoretical engine cycle first theorized by Sadi Carnot that can theoretically convert all the helmholtz energy from two reservoirs of thermal energy into external energy. It is the only cycle that can achieve this efficiency without using a heat exchanger. Some other cycles can achieve nearly this efficiency only when they approach the point of not producing any power, however the Carnot cycle can achieve this efficiency at full power conditions in theory.
We see color based on the frequency of individual wavicles and not on spacing between wavicles
competing models...competing descriptions of how a system operates.
Energy is the ability to create a force over a distance some time in the future
engineering...profession devoted to designing, constructing, and operating structures, machines, and other devices.
Internal energy and external energy forms
fermion...a particle, such as an electron, a proton, or a neutron, which obey statistical rules requiring that not more than one in a set of identical particles may occupy a particular quantum state.|
fields...see force fields.
filter...specifically a light filter is a substance that absorbs light and only emits certain colors or wavicle frequencies.
First Law of Energy ..einstein energy can neither be created nor destroyed. The sum of all forms of energy remains constant in the universe.
First Law of Mass...mass can neither be created nor destroyed. The sum of all forms of mass remains constant in the universe.
First Law evaluations...evaluating a process only on the basis of the First Law of Energy.
First Law of Thermodynamics ..in any thermodynamic process the total energy remains constant, none is created or destroyed. Note that it is better to rather use the First Law of Energy.
force fields...presently force fields are not very well understood in science and it is not known what causes them. The Standard Model suggests that force fields are produced by the result of an exchange of virtial interactive wavicles such as photons between matter wavicles. In this view it is imagined that the magnetic field of a magnet is a flow of virtual photons emanating from one end of the magnet and being returned in the other. It is more likely that force fields are a completely different entity of space. It is commonly thought that there are four force fields that exist along with four different types of virtual interactive wavicles. The Strong field, Electromagnetic field, Weak field, and Gravitational field. In reality it is not known whether this is in fact true. It is likely that all types of bosons exist but they may not be responsible for forces. The most common interactive wavicle is the photon.
force...the capacity to cause a change in movement of energy wavicles.
Four dimensional space-time continuum...Einstein popularized a certain system of measurement in the universe which is called the Observer measurement system which is based on a four dimensional space-time continuum. In this system, distance, time and mass are all related to what an observer would see or measure. An observer...is considered to be a human or an instrument that is measuring the event. In the Observer system, time is based on clocks the observer has which vary their speed depending how fast they travel relative to the space-time. Distances in the universe are based on how quickly a ray of light can travel from the distant event. Einstein loved to think in terms of a 4 dimensional universe with the length of time it took for light to travel between events as being a 4th dimension. Space was curved because this is the path that light took in traveling through the universe due to the effects of gravity on light.
free energy...symbol FE. Both helmholtz energy or gibbs energy are forms of the broader definition of free energy. This term is not widely used anymore as it is better to use either helmholtz energy or gibbs energy.
fuel cell...an electrochemical cell in which the chemical energy from the oxidation of a fuel is converted directly to electrical energy in a continuous process. The fuel cell differs from a battery in that its fuel reactants are supplied from an external source.
A fuel cell can convert the temperature of the fuel directly into electricity
gas turbine...an internal combustion engine consisting essentially of an air compressor, a combustion chamber, and a turbine wheel that is turned by the expanding products of combustion.
Matter wavicles are really just collections of interaction wavicles
matter...is energy that can exist even when it is stationary relative to the space continuum. The term stationary refers to a matter particle not moving even though wavicles within it are traveling.
Maxwell joked about a demon that would sort hot and cold molecules
mechanical energy...symbol ME, usually represents a transfer of external energy such as turning of a shaft.
The Michelson and Gale experiment used two beams of light traveling in counter rotating directions
microscopic...the size of normal molecules or smaller.
Momentum is different than external energy
multidirectional...traveling in many directions.
Popular 28 forms of energy in the plural energy system shown in a bar chart
polarized light...refers to photon wavicles with all the same spin or properties.
prism...a piece of translucent material such as glass or crystal with a triangular cross section, used to separate light into different colors.|
proton...subatomic particle discovered in 1919 of slightly less mass than the neutron which forms the nucleus of all atoms.
Quantum Field Theory...was developed mostly after about 1945 as an attempt to unify relativity and quantum theory and is still widely used. Quantum field theory in the era after 1970 attempts to combine aspects of Einstein's Relativity, quantum theory, and gauge theory into one.
Quantum Mechanics...is a branch of physics that deals with the emission and absorption of energy on the microscopic level. Quantum Mechanics is largely based on probabilities, something that bothered Einstein. The wavicles are obeying the law of physics for microscopic wavicles, it is just that scientists do not have equipment that can measure an individual event and so probabilities are used to estimate what may occur.
Quantum Theory...is a branch of physics that deals with the emission and absorption of energy on the microscopic level.
quark...elementary matter wavicle that the neutron and proton are made of.
radiation...the emission or transmission of energy in the form of real photon wavicles through the space continuum.
radiant energy...symbol RE, is the internal energy contained in the moving photon wavicle. See plural energy system for chart of different energy forms.
radio wavicles...electromagnetic wavicles or photons with an approximate wavicle frequency range from 10 kilohertz to 300,000 megahertz wavicle frequency.
real boson...see real interactive wavicle.
real interactive wavicle...it is commonly thought that there are four force fields that exist along with four different types of virtual interactive wavicles. The Strong field, Electromagnetic field, Weak field, Gravitational field. In reality it is not known whether this is in fact true. It is likely that all types of bosons exist but they may not be responsible for forces. The most common interactive wavicle is the photon.
reference atmosphere...is a body of matter such as the earth that energy can flow into during a conversion of internal energy to external energy.
refrigerator...an appliance, a cabinet, or a room for storing food or other substances at a low temperature which contains a device for producing the lower than ambient temperatures.
A refrigerator creates more caloric energy than the external energy put in
relativistic mass...symbol MR, the mass of all matter and interactive wavicles which changes as they travel faster relative to the space continuum.
Einstein rarely mentioned details of the uniform structure that energy travels in
space-time...in space-time, events in the universe are described in terms of a four-dimensional continuum in which each observer locates an event by three spacelike coordinates and one timelike coordinate.
Internal energy has varying amounts of energy per wavicle called temperature
theory...an assumption based on limited information or knowledge.
The energy in each photon or matter particle is related to its wavicle frequency relative to the space continuum
thermodynamics...is a branch of science concerned with the nature of thermal energy and its conversion into other forms of energy. This branch of science generally adopts the older Joule or classical model of energy.
5. REVISION HISTORY